Everyone has heard of the classic volcano science project using vinegar, baking soda, and a little bit of red food coloring. This little experiment, however, is a little more extreme, and a little more realistic (do not worry, it is not actually dangerous!). This guide will teach you how to create a volcano project that really erupts with some force.
Unfortunately, the fake lava is not going to be quite so realistically red, but sometimes compromise means sacrifices! Here we go:
Gather your building supplies. For this project, you are going to need to start with a volcano. A prepackaged paper mache kit is recommended. Next, you need a two-liter bottle of diet cola. Use your paper mache kit to build a mountainous, volcanic structure around the bottle, leaving a hole at the top large enough to facilitate opening the soda bottle. Give your paper mache plenty of time to dry before you attempt the next step, or else you will end up with a sticky mess on your hands.
Paint your volcano. This is where you can get pretty creative, even though most volcanic mountains look pretty much the same. You can go for the standard black and brown color of rocks and dirt, or you can get a little artsy. Why not make a tie-dye themed volcano? It is just a science experiment, and science should be fun! After applying your paint, make sure that it is completely dry before you begin the next stage: Explosion!
Now it is time to add the trigger to the equation. Go to your local convenience store and buy a roll of mint Mentos. It is very important that you buy these in particular, as nothing else will work correctly.
Ready your presentation in a clear, outdoor space (trust me; you do not want this volcano erupting indoors!). Carefully take the cap off your diet cola, which, if you have followed directions, should be housed securely in your paper mache volcano. Commence with a dramatic countdown, and at its conclusion, drop a couple of the Mentos into the cola.
This is a fun experiment to do at school or at home, but if you are planning to attempt it, there are a few safety precautions to take. The reaction of the cola to the mints is very strong, and you definitely do not want to put your face near the opening of the soda bottle for the initial eruption. It is recommended that you wear goggles or some type of protective eyewear if you are going to be the one tossing the mints in the soda. Other than that, enjoy the spectacle!
It seems that wearable technology is going to be the in thing in the next few years. During the 2012 Google I/O, a major theme that was being pushed would be technology that would be wearable by the consumers.
Instead of having to bring along a separate device in bags or pant pockets, it seems that Google (and other tech companies for that matter) would want users to actually wear them as part of their outfit. Perhaps the idea behind this is that it would make the device much more embedded into the lives of its users.
Industry observers mentioned that the idea is not that far-fetched. In fact, the military would already have prototypes and actual products of utilizing wearable computers. Usually, these military themed devices are used either for their communications capabilities or their GPS functionalities. However, the trend is to slowly bring these military devices into use for regular consumers.
In fact, there are now more companies who have tried to integrate their devices into more wearable designs. For example, MIT researches have long been looking at how they can manufacture wearable computers. Another example would be on how Apples iPod Nano has now made a wristband like peripheral which you could use to wear the highly capable device as a wrist watch.
Not one to be left behind by technology, Google also has something up their sleeve. They have previously announced the Google Glass. Google glass is a wearable device that would provide its users with a video game like heads up display while they are doing their everyday tasks.
Some analysts believe that Googles involvement in wearable technology would help push forward the acceptance of wearable devices. As of now, the use and acceptance of it is usually limited to the aforementioned military uses as well as to some of the rich and tech savvy people.
Analysts are speculating that similar to what happened with Android and smartphones, a Google role in the push for wearable technologies would also help push the number of devices that would provide this kind of function to the consumers,
Of course, people should note that despite the Google glass being highlighted in this years Google I/O, the actual thing is still in development. Many experts believe that the soonest that it would become available for commercial release would still be in 2 or 3 more years.
If you bring up forensics in a conversation, those involved will often start thinking of scenes from the television show CSI (Crime Scene Investigation). It’s synonymous with scouring crime scenes for minute clues to help criminal investigators create leads in various cases.
Because of the misunderstanding that’s developed about criminal investigations and forensics, many don’t realize that there is an acute difference between forensics and forensic science.
Currently, forensic science gets shortened in most discussions to “forensics.” The word “forensic” actually relates to debates, and comes from the Latin word “forensis” or “of or before the forum.” This concept became most prominent in ancient Rome where both the accused and the accuser involved in a judicial case had to advance their arguments in front of a public forum. This led to the usage of the term “forensics” for both public debate and the presentation of legal evidence.
This concept of “evidence” is what has caused it to run parallel and merge with forensic science. As the judicial system evolved, so, too, did the evidence that was required in cases. No longer was it a matter of verbal debate; instead other forms of evidence were necessary. The concept, that being “forensic” or “before the forum” still holds true. The only thing that has changed is the type of evidence that’s being presented.
While some modern dictionaries will actually merge the two and provide similar or identical definitions, they are quite separate by origin and practical application.
The term forensics refers to public debate which includes the presentation of evidence and rhetoric. Forensic Science is something different. It deals specifically with the gathering, identification, research, and scientific interpretation of evidence to determine such things as who was involved in a crime.
In addition to confusing the terms forensics and forensic science, people often mistake forensic science for criminalistics. However, it’s important to keep these terms in context too. Forensic science involves any discipline that can be applied to evidence. Criminalistics is just one of the subdivisions of forensic science.
Some of the disciplines that fall under the umbrella of “forensic science” are:
-Computer Forensics -Forensic Accounting -Forensic Audio Engineering -Forensic Linguistics -Forensic Pathology -Forensic Psychology -Forensic Engineering -Criminalistics
Criminalistics itself is the scientific discipline which brings together various natural sciences such as biology and chemistry to the examination, identification, and comparison of certain types of evidence. Criminalists deal with biological evidence including DNA and bodily fluids, trace evidence such as fibers, hair, and soil, and impression evidence such as fingerprints and tire tracks. They also are involved with ballistics, drug analysis, crime scene photography and reconstruction.
As you can see, the forensic sciences deal specifically with the research and examination of evidence so that such evidence can be admitted to and used within the legal system. Forensics on the other hand should be viewed not as the science behind the evidence, but as the presentation and use of the research once it’s completed.
Earth Science Fair Projects
Governments around the world along with private organization and companies are converging and discussing the environmental issues that are facing our planet. These international meetings are attended and lead by some of the greatest minds in the area of ecological sustainability. These leaders have spent their professional careers researching and implementing programs and policies to protect and repair the environment. They did not, however, wake up one day with all these qualifications in their heads. They have spent years and decades studying and researching their chosen field of specialty. Like other professionals, they began their careers as students. Many of these professionals are the very students who began their studies with earth science fair projects demonstrations. This was likely the first demonstration of their ability and desire to understand the systems and life forms with which we share the planet.
Earth science fair projects are the perfect venue for students who want to pursue a career in any number of environmental fields. The earth science fair projects of students often become the focus of their career goals. For those students interested in plant life, an earth science fair project on the growth of food crops might be in order. Students who are interested in the cycles of weather, and earth science fair project would be appropriate. Others who are interested in the history and origins of the very planet upon which we live could develop an earth science fair project around this huge topic. Regardless of the specific topic, earth science fair projects offer all students the opportunity to demonstrate their beginning knowledge of these important topics.
Many of the students who present earth science fair projects have plans on continuing their education at the college and postgraduate levels. These students often take the seed of interest that is planted with their first earth science fair projects and continue the studies at these higher educational levels. There are even professional who started at the high school science fair and were offered tuition and scholarships to continue their research. All the international professionals began as students, so the possibilities exist for all students interested in these fields of study. With these opportunities, students can transform their careers while transforming our stewardship of the Earth.
One of the requirements of entering a science fair is to complete a science fair project report. To be graded or scored well, the student needs to use the correct format, voice, tone and style, and they will need to include the right elements. Fortunately, all of these things are easy to accomplish once you know what is expected of you.
The first question that many students have that relate to writing a science fair project report is if it is okay to write in the first person. Students cannot write in the first person when writing a science fair project report. The entire report needs to be written in third person. This can be tricky as students are discussing what they did and what they discovered.
In addition to writing the report in third person, students will also want to avoid creative tones in their writing. While students are encouraged to use similes, metaphors and other creative expressions in English class, these are generally not appropriate in science writing. Students want to keep things as simple and straight forward as possible. The key is to explain the situation with as few words as possible.
Clarity is one of the characteristics that judges will be looking for when scoring your science fair project. They are going to evaluate how easy your report was to understand, how logical it progressed from data to conclusions and how organized the overall report was. The design of your display board and you presentation will also be judged for clarity.
Formatting Your Report
Formatting is very important when you start science writing. To start with you will want to select a 12 point font that is easy to read, like Times New Roman or Courier. Next you will want to double space your report and create a one inch all around margin. Finally, you will want to add a header that includes your project title and a page number.
The format of your science fair project report will also need to follow a common layout. Most reports will have the following sections in this order: (1) title page, (2) abstract, (3) introduction, (4) background research, (5) methodology (experiment), (6) data and data analysis, (7) discussion and conclusions and (8) bibliography. Each of these sections will be broken down into sub-sections. For example, the methodology section will include subheadings of supplies and experiment design while the introduction will contain information about the hypothesis, the reason for selecting the topic that was selected and definitions of terms used in the report.
Quick Science Fair Projects
Students in high school participate in science fairs in order to demonstrate their advanced understanding of a biological or physical sciences concept. These students are required to present a project that indicates higher order thinking and analysis. The standards for evaluating projects for these grade levels can be quite high and the competition can be fierce. The events for young students are based on different principles. Often younger students in the earlier grades participate in quick science fair projects. These quick science fair projects are not based on the level of knowledge or application principles of the high school students projects. The quick science fair projects in the earlier grades are based more on demonstrating an understanding of the facts related to a particular topic of science.
Quick science fair projects for the younger students are often completed in a matter of days, where the high school age students can spend weeks or even months on their projects. The quick science fair projects designed for younger students are tailored for the learning styles and abilities of this age of student. Thinking abstractly is not skills that younger students have developed so quick science fair projects are perfectly suited for their abilities. The characteristics of quick science fair projects include the use of every day items that can be found easily in the home or classroom. The teacher will often provide the necessary materials so that these younger students can experience the successful completion of their quick science fair projects.
While there are processes and the need to record data while completing quick science fair projects, the steps involved will be clearly explained to the students. For the earlier grades it is more important to carefully instruct them throughout the process of completing their projects. Older students can generate some of their own questions and testable theories, but younger students fare better with a set list of materials and how to use those materials to achieve the results. When deciding which quick science fair projects to use in the classroom it is important for these reasons to choose projects that are age appropriate. This way you ensure that the experience of bringing science to life is rewarding and enjoyable for your students.
The phrase Go Green means different things to different people. Some people have taken this idea and recycle everything they possibly can in order to keep trash out of the landfills. They also realize that not recycling is wasting products that can be reused. Other have taken the phrase and changed all their light bulbs to compact fluorescents in order to save energy. There are other people who have purchases hybrid cars or starting riding bikes to school and work in order to cut down on carbon emissions. There are literally hundreds of different ways to Go Green in our every day lives, and people are finally getting on board with it. Students have even taken up the challenge with their water science fair projects. Some of the latest submissions to these events are water science fair projects with a focus on the philosophy of Go Green.
Water science fair projects are particularly well suited to the environmental movements occurring today. Much of the concern for the environment by governmental and private eco groups is for the health of our water supply. Water science fair projects can focus on many different aspects of this concern. One area is the need for potable water in many areas of the world. What we take for granted that just comes out of the pipes in our homes is a rare commodity in many parts of the world. In developing nations the lack of clean drinking water is on the top of the list, and for good reason. Nothing survives without water. A students water science fair project just may have the answers for this critical life-threatening problem.
Another area the students focus on with their water science fair projects is the negative effect of pollution. This is particularly suited for demonstration purposes at science fairs. While all are familiar with the disastrous effects of ecological tragedies such as oil spills, less is known about the long-term effects of other types of pollution. This is one area a student may explore with their water science fair project. An additional area of concern lately is the health of the fresh water rivers of the world. Students are also taking these larger issues, researching them, and presenting their findings for their water science fair projects.
Society & Social Sciences books give us the information regarding the society, tradition, culture and human behaviours. These books can be considered as the combination of information and study in relation to human behaviours and the society and comprise a number of disciplines of social science which is a term normally used to represent numerous fields further than the natural sciences. Psychology Books, Politics & Current Events Books and Society & Culture Books are included in the category of books on Society & Social Sciences. The disciplines of social science are knowledge branches that are usually taught at the college and researched at the university level.
Social science books are helpful for research and PHD studies as lot of thesis and analysis are drawn out in social science books. These books are great to build and shape the character of the person.
Information on Psychology Books
The students who are willing to learn human behaviours are greatly interested in Psychology books. The science of psychology undertakes behavioural changes and mental process. Psychology books embrace distinguished topics on emotional behaviour of an individual or a group. These books are quite easy for reading as well as understanding. Some of the popular Psychology books are: Personality development, The road to you your success, How to win friends and influence people, Managing stress. Basically, these books are integrated in the art students’ course. They are obtainable in book stores as well as online at different costs. Some of the top brands are: Bantam Books, Free Press, Harper Collins, Hay House, Penguin Books.
Books on Politics & Current Events and Society & Culture
The research and academic discipline, political science handles the theory as well as practice of politics and the analysis and description of political behaviour and political systems. Political science is diverse methodologically. The process for applying coercive power legitimately is politics. Generally, the term of politics is used for the science or art of running state or governmental affairs, together with behaviour inside civil governments. A few popular books on Politics & Current Events: The Prince, Modelling as Negotiating, The Political Dynamics of Computer Models in the Policy Process. Top brands for these books are Hay House, Penguin Books. Some of the books on Society & Culture are: Pukhtoon Society in Transition, The Power of Intention, Police in Contradiction; The Evolution of the Police Function in Society. Top brand for books on Society & Culture is Penguin Books.
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For somebody who’s a techie, 4G is something you ought to already be familiar with. However, if you’re not one of those who’s fond of electronic gadgets, you should know that there’s more to 4G than meets the eye.
4G is commonly referred to as beyond 3G, a fourth generation wireless technology equipped with a more comprehensive and secured Internet Protocol. It is well-known to provide users with higher speed and better quality anytime, anywhere. It’s packed with better features compared to its predecessors.
Contrary to what others may suppose, 4G is not limited to mobile phones alone but also in computers. If you’re someone who’s fond of watching videos online, you’ll find that 4G provides high definition videos regardless of your whereabouts. You can surf the World Wide Web faster using any web-enabled devices you have by connecting them to the 4G modem. You can chat with your friends faster, hear their voices clearer and monitor their cams with no pauses and disruptions. You can also share pictures and videos without too much hassle. In case you’re going out, you can still use your mobile to surf the net with 4G mobile technology.
So why is 4G highly regarded than 3G or other types of mobile phone network? We are living in a high-tech world where additional technological innovations are discovered almost everyday. 4G happens to be one of the most advanced and recent mobile phone networks in today’s age. It is the network of choice by many since it is very accessible. It also has a very high data rate amounting to 100 Mbps and a very extensive bandwidth capacity which added networks fail to provide.
There are pitfalls though. The main one is that as a cutting edge technology there is likely to be very few places that actually have a 4G network in position.
Chances are it is used first in highly urbanized areas before it spreads out to rural areas. To remedy this problem, various companies set 4G hotspot areas where users can go to and use it free of charge. In some cases, there are computers which aren’t applicable with 4G since it’s engineered for Windows.
Today, almost all kinds of cell phones are suitable for 4G. Nevertheless, many techies believe that smart phones are the best because of their quality digital cameras. Others use T-mobile and iPhones which are likewise 4G compatible devices. Another concern will be the price. You can have these gadgets with or without 4G contract. A device with a 4G contract is cheaper with price starting at 199 to 299 US Dollars while those without a contract can cost you 599 to 699 US Dollars.
Switching to 4G is a good option you can make especially if you’re someone who’s into the latest technological craze and doesn’t want to be left behind. With so many features it offers, 4G is certain to change the way you look at technology.
Voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) technology has become standard in many offices and storefronts. It provides higher bandwidth and better capabilities than traditional phone lines. Faxing has changed because of the introduction of VoIP technology. Traditional fax machines that used modulated sound to transmit data are being replaced by software-based digital systems. Small businesses can benefit in a number of ways by switching to fax over IP technology.
One of the ways fax over IP can help a small business is by improving the reliability of transmissions. Traditional faxes rely on signal modulation to send and receive data. Inconsistencies in the telephone lines, minor hardware issues and even different fax machines can cause these transmissions to fail or to become corrupted. The fax over IP technology is digital and the data has a very low to non-existent chance of loss. This makes digital faxes far more reliable.
Fax over VoIP will save small businesses money over traditional faxing technologies. VoIP protocols can be sent across any network line. They can also be interpreted by a wide range of technologies from computers to multifunction printers and even mobile devices. This makes it unnecessary to maintain dedicated phone lines. It also decouples faxing from older fax machines that require constant maintenance, paper and toner.
Sending fax over VOIP in a network through a line can be done completely electronically. Small businesses do not need to feed a paper printout of an invoice or report into a machine. Similarly, faxes that have been received do not need to be printed immediately or at all. Sending and receiving faxes can be done through a software interface. Faxes can be sent and received as digital files that are viewed on computer screens or mobile devices. This allows a small business to be more environmentally friendly without having to sacrifice the convenience of faxing.
Better Access for Employees
The traditional way of sending faxes involved loading a machine, dialing a number and then waiting for a confirmation. This is time consuming and inefficient especially when multiple people need to send a fax. Fax over IP technology makes it possible for employees to send faxes seamlessly from a desktop or other device. The fax can be added as a network device similar to a printer. Employees can simply send documents to the fax from within different programs.
Higher Quality Faxes
A large benefit for modern businesses is higher quality faxes. Fax over IP can encode documents created digitally. There are no scanning or resolution issues. People who receive the fax will see the document exactly as it was created. This can make it easier to send documents that include detailed charts, small graphics or complex illustrations. The individual pixel will not run together and become illegible because of issues with an optical scanner at the last minute.